Know how do mobile phone works and mobile phone work policy?
For most of us the mobile phone is a part of our life. But sure you are always surrounded by curious questions like ,how a mobile phone makes a call, why are there different generations of mobile communication? Let’s explore the processing behind mobile communication.
how do mobile phone works
When you speak on your phone, your voice is picked up by your phone’s microphone. With the help of the MEMS sensor and IC, the microphone converts your voice into a digital signal. And the digital signal has your voice as zero and people.
An antenna inside the phone receives these zero people and transmits them in the form of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves propagate to zeros and masses by changing characteristics, such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or a combination.
Able to establish call
For example, in terms of frequency, zero and one are transmitted using low and high frequencies respectively. Therefore, if you can find a way to transmit these electromagnetic waves to your friend’s phone, you will be able to set up a call.
However, electromagnetic waves are unable to travel long distances. They lose their strength due to the presence of physical objects, electric equipment and some environmental factors. In fact, even if there were no such issues, electromagnetic waves would not last forever, due to the curved structure of the Earth.
To overcome these on account of, cell towers were introduced, using the concept of cellular technology. In cellular technology, a geographic region is divided into hexagonal cells with each cell having its own tower and frequency slot.
Typically, these are connected via cell tower wires, or more specifically, optical fiber cables. These optical fiber cables are placed under land or ocean to provide national or international connectivity. The electromagnetic waves produced by your phone are picked up by towers in your cell and are converted into high-frequency light pulses.
These light pulses are transported to the base transceiver box, which is located at the base of the tower for further signal processing. After processing, your sound signal is routed towards the destination tower. Upon receiving the pulses, the destination tower transmits it outward in the form of electromagnetic waves, and your friend’s phone then receives the signal.
This signal goes through a reverse process, and your friend listens to your voice. So, it is true that mobile communications are not completely wireless, they also use a wired medium. Mobile communication is done in this way.
However, a major issue was that we deliberately left unanswered. Mobile communication is only successful when your spire transfers the signal to your friends’ tower. But how does your tower know which cell tower area your friend is located in? Well, for this process, the cell tower is helped by something called a mobile switching center.
mobile phone work policy
The MSC is the central point of a group of cell towers. Before proceeding further, let us know more information about MSC. When you purchase a SIM card, all membership information is registered in a specified MSC.
This MSC will be your home MSC. Home stores information such as MSC service plans, your current location and your activity status. If you go beyond the limits of your home MSC, the new MSC, which serves you in its place, is known as a foreign MSC.
As you enter a foreign MSc field, it communicates with your home MSc. In your home MSC always knows which MSC area you are in. To understand where the customer is in the MSE area, MSC uses some techniques. One way is to update the customer’s location after a certain period of time.
When the phone turns on
When the phone crosses a predefined number of towers, the location update is performed again. The last one of these is when the phone turns on. Let us try to understand all these processes with an example.
Suppose Emma wants to call John. When Ema dials John number, the call request arrives at Emma’s home MSC. Upon receiving John’s number, the request will be sent to John’s home MSC. Now, John checks the MSc for his current MSc.
If John is in his home MSC, call requests will be immediately sent to his current cell location, and checks if John is on another call, or if his mobile is off. If everything is positive, John’s phone rings, and the call will connect.
However, if John is not in his home MSC, then John’s home MSC forwarded the call request to the foreign MSC. The foreign MSC will follow the procedure described earlier to locate John’s phone, and then set up the call. Now, let’s discuss why the frequency spectrum is important in mobile phone communication.
To move into digital communication
To shift zero and people to digital communication, a frequency range is allocated to each customer. However, the frequency spectrum available for cellular communications is quite limited, and there are billions of subscribers.
This problem is solved with the help of two techniques, a frequency slot distribution and two, multiple access techniques. In the first technique, different cell slots are allocated to different frequency slots carefully. In multiple access technology, this frequency slot is distributed efficiently among all active users of the cell area. Now, the unavoidable issue.
Why are there different generations of mobile phone technologies? 1G allowed users to carry phones without a cable for the first time. But 1G faced two major problems.
The first problem was that the wireless devolution was in an analog format. Analog signals that are easily replaced by external sources. So, it provides poor voice quality and poor security.
Division Multiple Access Technology
The second problem was that it used the frequency division multiple access technique, which used the available spectrum inefficiently.
These factors paved the way for the second generation of mobile communications, with 2G using digital multiple access technologies, such as TDMA, or CDMA technology. The second generation also oneself a revolutionary data service, SMS, and Internet browsing. 3G technology was focused on, delivering a higher data transfer speed.
This increased bandwidth as well as used a WCD multiple access technology. To achieve this, two Mbps 3G speeds allowed the transfer of data for uses such as GPS, video, voice call, etc.
3G was a major step in the transformation of basic phones to smartphone. Next came 4G, which achieved speeds of 20 to 100 Mbps. It was suitable for high resolution films and television.
This high speed was made possible by.OFD multiple access technologies and MIMO technology. MIMO uses multiple transmitter-receiver antennas inside both mobile phones and towers.
The next generation of mobile communications, 5G, will use enhanced MIMO technology and millimeter waves to be carried out soon. It will provide seamless connectivity to support the Internet of things like driverless cars and smart homes. Thank you
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